Tuesday, September 06, 2016


The Zen Cart Administration Interface contains a number of pages that are used to manage simple lists of items. Examples are the Countries and Zones pages under Locations/Taxes.

What is common amongst these pages is that they initially show a paginated list of entries, and then allow you to edit an existing entry, add new entries, and delete entries.

The pre-1.6.0 pages that manage these lists have a number of problems. They are difficult to create easily, they are almost impossible to customize using add-ons and the code is usually quite messy, with php code interspersed with output HTML.

The new style admin LEAD (List/Edit/Add/Delete) pages are completely object oriented. Code is separate from the output templates. They are easy to create, in fact a lot of LEAD pages can be created by simply defining some simple array structures.

The LEAD pages also integrate a simple filtering system, that allows the admin user to select a subset of the items in the list.

LEAD pages leverage a number of new classes/structures which have been added to v160:

  • Admin Action Controllers define a new way of writing admin pages, where the code is separated from the template.

  • Listing Box classes allow for complex querying of the database using a structured array.

  • Service classes that separate domain specific concerns from the controllers.

We will show examples of using all three of the above classes in the documentation.

LEAD Controllers

New pages that are being written for Zen Cart admin should use the new controller classes. Documentation for controller classes can be found here.

Generally the controller classes for Admin LEAD pages are very simple.


namespace ZenCart\Controllers;

 * Class Countries
 * @package ZenCart\Controllers
class Countries extends AbstractLeadController

There may be reasons to override methods in the AbstractLeadController and examples will be given later.

LEAD Controller names are expected to follow Camel Case conventions. So for the command admin/index.php?cmd=geo_zones, the Controller would be GeoZones.php in includes/library/zencart/Controllers/src/admin/.

ListingQueryAndOutput Classes

The main workhorse of the LEAD pages are the ListingQueryAndOutput classes.

ListingQueryAndOutput file names are also expected to follow Camel Case conventions, and to start with the string "Lead". So continuing with the example admin/index.php?cmd=geo_zones, the ListingQueryAndOutput would be LeadGeoZones.php in includes/library/zencart/ListingQueryAndOutput/src/definitions/.

Reports (pages using the LEAD infrastructure but without edit, add or delete capability) start with "ReportStats" instead of "Lead". So for the report which is reached using admin/index.php?cmd=stats_products_lowstock, the corresponding ListingQueryAndOutput class
would be ReportStatsProductsLowStock.php in includes/library/zencart/ListingQueryAndOutput/src/definitions/.

The ListingQueryAndOutput object is built out in the call initQueryAndOutput().

Objects in QueryBuilderDefinition:

  • listingQuery - array of fields controlling the query of data to be displayed
  • outputLayout - array of fields controlling how the data will be displayed

Fields in listingQuery

  • mainTable - The first table in the query (array)
  • joinTables - Additional tables in the query which are joined with a foreign key (array)
  • whereClauses - The WHERE statement used in the query (array)
  • selectList - Fields specified in the listMap which must be calculated from database fields, not just queried (array)
  • groupBys - The GROUP BY statement used in the query (array)
  • orderBys - The ORDER BY statement used in the query (array)
  • language - Flag which indicates the table has translations (boolean, default false)
  • singleTable - Flag which indicates whether translations are in the same table vs another table (boolean, default: false)
  • languageInfoTable - Table where translations are stored (string)
  • languageKeyField - some tables use languages_id and some use language_id as their key; this field indicates which value to use (string, default: languages_id)
  • isPaginated - Whether all results should be shown on one page, or broken up so that only a specific number are displayed with navigation buttons to go forward and backward in the complete set (boolean, default true)
  • pagination - Structure controlling display of pagination controls (array)
  • derivedItems - fields which are not stored in the database but must be constructed out of other fields (array)
Fields in listingQuery->derivedItems
  • field - name of the field to be constructed
  • handler - a function, typically defined in either includes/library/zencart/QueryBuilder/src/DerivedItemManager.php or the initQueryAndOutput function of the class, which returns the value of the field

Fields in outputLayout

  • relatedLinks - Second set of boxes on the left hand side of a LEAD page (array of arrays)
  • listMap - The order in which the fields are displayed when viewing the list (array of strings)
  • editMap - The order in which the fields are displayed when editing an entry (array of strings)
  • showActionLinkListList - The first set of boxes on the left hand side of a LEAD Page (boolean, default true)
  • allowAdd - Whether or not you are allowed to add new items to this list (boolean, default true).
  • fields - provides specifics on how individual fields should be queried and displayed
  • boxTitle - provides a title for centerbox or page
  • formatter - The formatter takes data from the query and organizes it so the template may display it
Fields in outputLayout->formatter
  • class - One of the classes in includes/library/zencart/ListingQueryAndOutput/src/formatters
  • template - template used when drawing the page
  • params - settings for output:
    • columnCount - number of columns to use for the box
  • sortMainPage - controls how the box is sorted with respect to other boxes on the index listing page
Fields in outputLayout->fields
  • bindVarsType - The type of the variable used as a parameter in the query. (This is used in the $db->bindVars call.
  • language - Flag which indicates the table has translations (boolean, default false)
  • layout: array of arrays showing how field is to be displayed. Keys for top level array are common (for add and update), edit (for update) and list (for listing display). Each array entry contains:
    • title - title to be used as the column header
    • type - data type of field
    • size - width of column
  • total - whether the column should be totaled in the last line. Possible values are:
    • currencySum (add all figures and display total as a currency value)
    • count (count number of rows on the page)
    • sum (add all figures and display total)


                'artists_url' => array(
                    'bindVarsType' => 'string',
                    'language' => true,
                    'layout' => array(
                        'common' => array(
                            'title' => TEXT_ENTRY_RECORD_ARTIST_URL,
                            'type' => 'text',
                            'size' => '30'

Building Queries

Queries are built piece by piece from the listingQuery and outputLayout structures described above. The first time you create a new query, the easiest approach is likely to simply review how a similar query was constructed and use that approach.

Language Handling

Language Files

Language file names have the name of the command, so using again the example of the low stock report admin/index.php?cmd=stats_products_lowstock, the language file would be includes/languages/english/stats_products_lowstock.php.

The only rules around strings in this file relate to the strings required by the LEAD framework. The "List" button, which is the first of the buttons on the left side of the LEAD page, requires the define TEXT_LEAD_ACTION_LIST. The "Add" button requires the define TEXT_LEAD_ACTION_ADD_ENTRY.

Language Handling in Queries

Some queries which join tables containing a language key field will need to use only the current language. This is specified in the whereClauses and bindVars of the listingQuery.

            'whereClauses' => array(
                    'type' => 'AND',
                    'table' => TABLE_PRODUCTS_DESCRIPTION,
                    'field' => 'language_id',
                    'value' => ':language_id:'
            'bindVars' => array(
                    $_SESSION ['languages_id'],

For an example of this, see `includes/library/zencart/ListingQueryAndOutput/src/definitions/LeadGeoZonesDetail.php

Process Flow and Filenames

The flow of logic when building a LEAD report on the admin side uses both catalog and admin side files, so you may need to look on the catalog side to determine where changes need to be make when working on a LEAD report.

The file naming conventions were touched on above, but now we'll walk through a whole example for the flow when an admin requests Locations/Taxes->Countries (admin/index.php?cmd=countries):

  • The controller is includes/library/zencart/Controllers/src/admin/Countries.php
  • The language file is admin/includes/languages/english/countries.php
  • The query for the report is includes/library/zencart/ListingQueryAndOutput/src/definitions/LeadCountries.php
  • The template matching tplCountries.php does not exist, so the template is admin/includes/template/templates/tplAdminLead.php

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